**Articles from Diigo fo Further Reading**

Revision Materials From Greenfield


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Characteristics

AIM: Explain the characteristics and spatial distribution of the
following hazards.
-Either earthquakes or volcanoes
-Hurricanes (tropical cyclones, typhoons)
-Droughts
-Any one recent human-induced (technological) hazard (explosion or escape of hazardous material)

Follow a year's worth of coverage on the BP oil spill from the first days of the disaster to the current state of the cleanup.
NYT Tracking the Oil Spill Info graph
AIM: Distinguish between the chosen hazards in terms of their spatial extent, predictability, frequency, magnitude, duration, speed of onset and effects.

Vulnerable populations

AIM: Explain the reasons why people live in hazardous areas.

Vulnerability

AIM: Discuss vulnerability as a function of demographic and socio-economic factors, and of a community’s
preparedness and ability to deal with a hazard event when it occurs.

AIM: Explain the reasons for some sectors of a population being more vulnerable than others.


Analysis of risk

AIM: Examine the relationships between the degree of risk posed by a hazard and the probability of a hazard event
occurring, the predicted losses and a community’s preparedness for it.

AIM: Explain the reasons why individuals and communities often underestimate the probability of hazard events
occurring.

AIM: Discuss the factors that determine an individual’s perception of the risk posed by hazards.

Hazard event prediction

AIM: Examine the methods used to make estimates (predictions) of the probability (in time and space) of hazard events occurring, and of their potential impact on lives and property.

AIM: Discuss these methods by examining case studies relating
to two different hazard types.


Disasters

AIM: Distinguish between a hazard event and a disaster.

AIM: Explain why this distinction is not always completely objective.

AIM: Measuring disasters Describe the methods used to quantify the spatial extent and intensity of disasters.


AIM:Explain the causes and impacts of any one disaster resulting from a natural hazard.

AIM: Explain the causes and impacts of any one recent human-induced hazard event or disaster.

AIM: Examine the ways in which the intensity and impacts of disasters vary in space and have changed over time.

Responses to the risk of hazard events

AIM: Discuss the usefulness of assessing risk before deciding the strategies of adjustment and response to a hazard.

AIM: Describe attempts that have been made to reduce vulnerability by spreading the risk (aid, insurance) and by land-use planning (zoning).

Before the event

AIM: Describe strategies designed to limit the damage from potential hazard events and disasters.

Short-term, mid-term and long-term responses after the event

AIM: Describe the range of responses, at the community, national and international levels, during and after a hazard event or disaster.

AIM: Distinguish between rescue, rehabilitation and reconstruction responses.

AIM: Explain how these responses are affected by individual and community perceptions.

AIM: Examine the factors that affected the choice of adjustments before, and responses to, actual hazard events or disasters.

AIM: Discuss the importance of re-assessing risk, and re-examining vulnerability, following any major hazard event or disaster.