Articles from Diigo for Further Reading

Revision Materials From Greenfield

1. The water system
  • The hydrological Cycle
Examine the inputs, outputs, stores and transfers of the hydrological cycle. Discuss the causes and consequences of the changing balance between water stored in oceans and ice.
3 hours
  • The water balance
Explain the concept of maximum sustainable yield of freshwater in terms of a balance between inputs and outputs.
2. Drainage basins and flooding
  • Drainage basins
Examine the functioning of a drainage basin as an open system with inputs, outputs, transfers, stores and feedback loops.
2 hours
  • Discharge
Define stream discharge. Examine its relationship to stream flow and channel shape.
1 hour
  • Hydrographs
Describe the characteristics of a hydrograph. Examine the reasons for spatial and temporal (short-term and long-term) variations in hydrographs. Examine the role of hydrographs in forecasting the magnitude, spatial extent and timing of floods.
3 hours
  • Floods
Discuss the natural and human causes and consequences of a specific river flood.
3 hours
3. Management issues and strategies
  • Dams and Reservoirs
Examine the hydrological changes resulting from the construction of dams and reservoirs. Examine the costs and benefits of dams and reservoirs as part of multi‑purpose schemes.
2 hours
Explain the stream channel processes (erosion, transport, deposition) and explain the resultant landforms found on floodplains.
Examine the human modifications of a floodplain and their effect on the size and probability of floods.
Evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative stream management strategies.
3 hours
  • Groundwater management
Explain the functioning and management of artesian basins and aquifers, distinguishing between natural and artificial recharge. Examine the environmental impacts of groundwater abstraction.
2 hours
  • Freshwater wetland management
Describe the role of wetlands as a water resource. Evaluate the effectiveness of the management strategies that have been adopted in a major wetland.
2 hours
  • Irrigation and agriculture
Examine the environmental impact of agriculture and irrigation on water quality: salinization, agro‑chemical run-off, the pollution of groundwater and the eutrophication of lakes, rivers and wetlands.
3 hours
4. Competing demands for water
  • Conflicts at the local or national scale
Examine the competing demands for water in a specific river basin. Evaluate the strategies that have been adopted to meet these demands.
6 hours
  • Conflicts at the international scale
Discuss an example of an international conflict related to freshwater.
external image msword.png IB Freshwater issues and conflict defintions.doc


1993 Mississippi River Flood