Revision Materials from Greenfield


Articles for Case Studies

Measurements of regional and global disparities

AIM: Define indices of infant mortality, education, nutrition, income, marginalization and Human Development Index (HDI). Explain the value of the indices in measuring disparities across the globe.

QUALITATIVE INDICATORS: Describe development rather than measure .e.g. Security, survival

COMPOSITE INDICATORS: Combine several other factors in one single figure E.g. HDI

QUANTITATIVE INDICATORS: Numbers rather than descriptions GNI per Capita


Infant Mortality: the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. [Source]

Education Indices:
Literacy Rate: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world. [Source]
Education expenditure: the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP. [Source]

Nutrition Indices:
Malnutrition prevalence, height for age (% of children under 5): Prevalence of child malnutrition is the percentage of children under age 5 whose height for age (stunting) is more than two standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0-59 months. For children up to two years old height is measured by recumbent length. For older children height is measured by stature while standing. The data are based on the WHO's new child growth standards released in 2006. [Source]

Income Indices:
Gross National Income: (now used in preference to gross national product—GNP). The total value of goods and services produced within a country together with the balance of income and payments from or to other countries. [Data Source]

Marginalization Index Mexico:

source geographyjim

**Human Development Index:**

Why are IMR and LE good indicators for development?

Infant Mortality indicates:
-Level of Medical care – If there are no medicines to cure illnesses the number of infants dying can start to increase.
-Presence of Disease – Children are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks of disease. Disease is a major killer of the young in developing countries. -Number of doctors – If a child becomes ill in rural areas the nearest doctor may be many kilometers away.-Nutrition – Poor families can’t afford enough food to go around. Hunger and poor diet is a major killer.
-Natural disasters/war – War and natural disasters affect everyone in a country or region young and old alike -Cultural – In many developing areas, girls marry and have children at a young age. This can affect the health of their babies. Sometimes, minorities tend to have more children because of their economic situation (help on the farm)
Life Expectancy indicates:
-Lifestyle - A combination of factors, such as unsanitary living conditions, pollution, diet, health and poverty, means that the overall quality of life for people can affect a regions’ Life Expectancy. People living under these conditions are more prone to illness and disease – particularly amongst the very young and the very old.
-Medical care - The absence of an effective healthcare system, with efficient hospitals and medical staff, can result in a low life expectancy. Illnesses that would normally be easily cured in developed countries can go untreated in less developed nations and become life threatening.
-Diet - Having too little food to eat can seriously affect people’s health and reduce how long they can expect to live. Lack of food, and nutritionally poor food, can cause illness and ailments that can shorten people’s lives. A poor diet can also make people weaker and more vulnerable to catching diseases.
-Disease - A country plagued by diseases can expect this factor to affect its citizens’ life expectancy. Some diseases may not kill a person immediately but make them much weaker and prone to sickness. Over the years this can significantly reduce their life expectancy.


Origin of disparities

AIM: Explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from ethnicity, residence, parental education, income, employment (formal and informal) and land ownership.

One approach to this objective would be to review those areas investigated in Core #1: Gender and Change (as these two objectives relate to one another)



VIP DOC


Poverty




Origins of disparities NYC




Origins of Disparities India



Case Study: Explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from ethnicity

Minority Groups in China -NYT Inforgraph
Case Study:explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from residence

Case Study:explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from parental education

Case Study:explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from income

Case Study:explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting employment (formal and informal)

Case Study:explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from land ownership

Disparities and change

AIM: Identify and explain the changing patterns and trends of regional and global disparities of life expectancy, education and income.

Life Expectancy
Global Patterns in Life Expectancy
View graph at geographyalltheway
Trends in Life Expectancy
By Country
By Comparision
Pages 26-27 IB Geography Study Guide
Case Study Articles
UK Disparities

Income
View graph at geographyalltheway
A $95,000 question: why are whites five times richer than blacks in the US?
Pages 26-27 IB Geography Study Guide
2010 MDG Report --Overview (pages 6-7) and Pages 8-17

Education
**View graph at geographyalltheway
China Daily: Government to increase spending on education
Pages 26-27 IB Geography Study Guide
2010 MDG Report --Overview (pages 6-7) and Pages 18-20

AIM: Examine the progress made in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in poverty reduction, education and health.
UN 2010 MDG Report (Goals 1,2,4, & 6)
UNDP - The 2010 MDG Summit Outcome


Reducing disparities

AIM: Discuss the different ways in which disparities can be reduced with an emphasis on trade and market access, debt relief, aid and remittances. Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce disparities.

**Great activity at geographyalltheway + revision questions






Further Notes:
IB study Guide pages 28-31
Planet Geography pages 95-99

Revision:

Key Words and Case Studies
MISS BUTLER'S REVISION QUESTIONS